For the fabrication of electronic structures and devices a number of processes is applied and several films consisting of various materials are involved and shaped to meet the desired layout. Typical materials are Si (monocrystal, poly, amorphous), dielectrics (SiOx, SixNy, HfO2, ….), photoresists, GaAs and in most cases form a stack of films in the final structure/device. FR tools offer fast and accurate measurement of film thickness and refractive index of single or stack of films in a wide thickness range from 1nm to 1mm depending on the spectral range supported by the tool.
For the characterization of ultrathin films, measurement of the reflectance or transmittance spectrum in UV is necessary, so FR-pRo UV/VIS is the suitable tool.
On the other hand for the measurement of very thick films, the measurement should be performed at higher wavelengths, with FR-pRo operating in narrow NIR range being the most suitable tool.
For the majority of applications, FR-tools operating in VIS/NIR in the tool of choice. FR-pRo VIS/NIR or FR-pOrtable operating in the 380-1000nm spectral range can characterize dielectric coatings from 12nm to 90μm.
In case of patterned films, FR-μProbe mounted on optical microscope allows for the characterization of small areas with spot size down to 2μm in diameter.
Typical Application Notes: