FR-tools product line is carefully designed on an open hardware and software architecture in order to be applicable in a wide range of diverse applications just by adding modules dedicated to particular application areas. Thanks to this modular assembly procedure, FR-tools can be applied in multiple areas just by adding new modules directly at user’s site without the need of buying new equipment. This flexibility allows for application in the areas of Semiconductor, Photonics, PhotoVoltaics, MEMS/Sensors, BioSensors, Process Control, Polymers, Optical Coatings, Education and many more.

Semiconductor

For the fabrication of electronic structures and devices a number of processes is applied and several films consisting of various materials are involved and shaped to meet the desired layout. Typical materials are Si (monocrystal, poly, amorphous), dielectrics (SiOx, SixNy, HfO2, ….), photoresists, GaAs and in most cases form a stack of films in the final structure/device. FR-Basic tools offer fast and accurate measurement of film thickness and refractive index of single or stack of films in a wide thickness range from few nanometers to few hundred of micrometers depending on the spectral range supported by the tool. The ideal spectral range for measurement of ultrathin films is UV, so FR-Basic UV/NIR is the suitable tool. On the other hand for the measurement of very thick films, the measurement should be performed at high wavelengths, with FR-Basic NIR being the most suitable tool. FR-Basic VIS/NIR appears to be the tool suitable for a wide range of thicknesses, from few tens of nanometers to several tens of micrometers at a very attractive price. In case of patterned films, where the area to be probed is not easily distinguishable by eye, FR-μProbe mounted on optical microscope allows for measurement of small areas down to few tens of micrometers in diameter

Core Module: FR-Basic UV/NIR or VIS/NIR or UV/VIS-HR*

 Case Module: Type B

Working Area: Bench Top

Optical Fiber Config: Reflection Probe Holder

Cover Top: Transparent Cover

*Depend on targeted thickness measurement range

Photonics

In Photonics the measurement of absorbance, reflectance, transmittance, and luminescence in structures and devices it is of very high importance. FR- tools through their modular design constitute a reliable solution for accurate measurement of those properties. FR-Basic is used for the measurement of these optical properties along with refractive index and film thickness(es). The FR-Basic configuration to be selected depends strongly on the spectral region needed for the measurement. In the area of light emitting devices, Lasers/LEDs/OLEDs, the measurement of light emitted both as spectral content and as absolute intensity values is critical. For those particular devices CFN-Basic allows for accurate and detailed characterization.
In the particular case of Photonic Crystals, which are made from periodic dielectric materials that are designed to affect the motion of photons by control, bend, trap, switch, slow, reflect and efficiently extract light emitted from embedded or adjacent semiconductors, it is critical to measure accurately the thickness of each film and overall optical performance. The application of FR-Basic tools in this area becomes wider thanks to special features implemented in FR-Monitor software like the wide and user expandable material database, the handling of numerous (practically unlimited) layers, the theoretical reflectance in case of 1D photonic Crystals etc.

Core Module: FR-Basic UV/NIR or VIS/NIR or UV/VIS-HR*

 Case Module: Type A

Working Area: Bench Top

Optical Fiber Config: Reflection Probe Holder, Film/Cuvette Holder
Integrating Sphere**

Cover Top: Transparent Cover

* Depend on targeted thickness measurement range
** For Luminescence and/or Total Reflectance measurements.

Photovoltaics

In Photovoltaic (PV) devices, efficiency depends strongly on the properties of the layers comprising the PV stack for all categories (monocrystalline-Si, Polycrystalline-Si, Amorhous-Si (thin film), CIGS). For that reason the refractive index and thickness of every layer in the PV stack should be measured with great accuracy. The measurement could be done either on-line (during layer processing) or off-line. FR-Basic is the tool needed for such kind of measurement. The particular FR-Basic configuration depends strongly on the PV stack. In the mono-crystalline and poly-crystalline Si cases the optimum configuration includes measurements in the VIS spectrum and the use of integrated sphere. In the amorphous-Si case (thin-film) the optimum configuration is the one covering the VIS-NIR range while for the CIGS case, the optimum solution is the FR-Basic-D where reflectance measurements in the 350-1700(2100) nm range are provided.
Furthermore Haze value is of interest in this field since affects the overall performance. This parameter can be accurately measured in a wide spectral regime with FR-Basic through the implementation of an integrating sphere. For the panel case, FR-Haze is the choice with the capability of handling standard glasses and measure Haze values over several points in a manual or automatic mode.
Finally for the measurement of Internal & External Quantum Efficiency (IQE, EQE) values the choice is FR-QE where internal and external quantum efficiency values are accurately calculated for the 300-1100nm spectral region.

Core Module: FR-Basic VIS/NIR or D*

Case Module: Type B

Working Area: Bench Top

Optical Fiber Config: Reflection Probe Holder
Integrating Sphere**

Cover Top: Transparent Cover

* Depend on required spectral range.
** For Total Reflection/Reflectance Haze or Total Transmittance / Transmittance Haze measurements.

MEMS/Sensors

In MEMS and sensing devices several thin or thick films are employed. For example in polymer coated sensors, film thickness and refractive index changes due to interaction with the environment are critical for the operation of the device. In this case FR-Basic along with the Gas Chamber and/or Hot Plate modules is used for real-time monitoring of both film thickness and refractive index changes with limit of detection in film thickness change values to be in the sub-nm regime. For the fabrication of MEMS structures, e.g. high aspect ratio micromachining, FR-Basic VIS/NIR or FR-Basic NIR are needed in order to exploit the high wavelength spectrum for measurement of thick films.

Core Module: FR-Basic VIS/NIR or NIR*

Case Module: Type B

Working Area: Bench Top

Optical Fiber Config: Reflection Probe Holder
Hot Plate**
Gas Chamber**

Cover Top: Transparent Cover

* Depend on targeted film measurement range.
** For measurements under controller environment

Biosensors

Several techniques either label or label-free have been developed for the detection of biomolecules. In this field it is of high interest to be able to monitor both the bioreaction kinetics and the thickness(e)s of the final biomolecular film(s). Due to the minute sample quantities used in these studies, the detection area should be small and thus measurements under optical microscope, is preferable. For that reason FR-μProbe is the ideal tool for both label-free and fluorescence measurements accompanied with a special microfluidic cell that allows for the controlled delivery of minute quantities. Alternatively for enhanced limit of detection and sensitivity, FR-Basic VIS/NIR-SG is the suggested solution along with the special microfluidic cell and the related holder

Core Module: FR-Basic VIS/NIR-SG

Case Module: Type B

Working Area: Bench Top

Optical Fiber Config: Reflection Probe Holder
Microfluidic Cell

Cover Top: Transparent Cover

Process Control

In several processes in a wide spectrum of application areas it is of high interest to monitor the deposition/removal rate of thin and or thick transparent or semi-absorbing films. Typical areas are microelectronics, MEMS, Photonics, PhotoVoltaics, Optical Coatings, Polymer coatings etc. FR-Basic tools thanks to their unique components and to their open hardware/software architecture are suitable for real-time remote monitoring of fast processes and can be mounted on existing processing equipment for non-destructive monitoring of such processes.

Core Module: FR-Basic UV/NIR or VIS/NIR or UV/VIS-HR*

Case Module: Type B

Working Area: Bench Top

Optical Fiber Config: Reflection Probe Holder

Cover Top: Transparent Cover

* Depend on requirement thickness measurement/spectrum range.

Polymers

Nowadays in more and more applications polymers are used as films and thus it is of paramount importance to measure and tune polymeric film properties in order to meet application specifications. Amongst the various properties needed to be monitored / tuned, optical and physicochemical ones are of great interest. With FR-Basic tools film thickness and refractive index of transparent and semi-absorbing films are measured in addition to the standard optical properties. With FR-Thermal measurement of physicochemical properties such as glass transition temperature, thermal degradation etc. can be performed even for sub-50nm thick films.
Finally with FR-Liquid the effect of immersion of polymeric film in liquids can be measured in real time e.g. dissolution, swelling

Core Module: FR-Basic VIS/NIR or NIR*

Case Module: Type B

Working Area: Bench Top

Optical Fiber Config: Reflection Probe Holder
Hot Plate**
Liquid vessel**

Cover Top: Transparent Cover

* Depend on thickness measurement range.
** For measurement of physicochemical properties.

Optical Coatings

Coatings on optical elements are used to tune their spectral responses and add particular characteristics needed for their use. Typical examples are broad-band or narrow-band anti-reflective coatings, hardcoats for protection against scratches and harmful UV irradiation and hydrophobic layers. These layers are deposited on a wide thickness range depending on the application from few tens of nanometers to few tens of micrometers. FR-Basic tools are the appropriate tools for such kind of measurements offering at the same time, accurate film thickness calculations, absorbance and transmittance values in a wide spectral range from UV to IR (200-2500nm) that is adjusted to the application specifications.
In the particular case of film thickness calculation of antireflective layers, reflectance measurement is applied in the spectral region outside the anti-reflective spectrum. On the other hand for ultrathin coatings, e.g. hydrophobic ones, thickness measurement is performed in short wavelengths, UV.

Core Module: FR-Basic UV/NIR or VIS/NIR or UV/VIS-HR*

Case Module: Type B

Working Area: Bench Top

Optical Fiber Config: Reflection Probe Holder

Cover Top: Transparent Cover

* Depend on thickness measurement range.

Education

Training of students in optical measurements is of high importance for a wide range of University departments such as Physics, Chemistry, and Material Science. FR-Basic tools combined with accessories for samples handling offer the capability for a wide range of measurements such as: absorbance, transmittance, absorbance, fluorescence, film thickness, refractive index. All measurements can be performed with the same tool by just using the appropriate holder. In cases where the tool is used only for educational purposes, a lower-cost stand-alone version, FR-Education, is available with limited thickness measurement range.

Core Module: FR-Education

Case Module: Type A

Working Area: Bench Top

Optical Fiber Config: Reflection Probe Holder, Film/Cuvette holder

Cover Top: Transparent Cover

Go to top

ThetaMetrisis - Copyright (©) 2016 All Rights Reserved


DMC Firewall is developed by Dean Marshall Consultancy Ltd